Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine

Original Article
SJEMed. 2020; 1(2): 83-88

Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh

Authors: Abdullah Akkam, Ohud Asiri, Amina Joarder, Faisal Almazroua, Biswadev Mitra.

View PDF HTML Fulltext DOI: 10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559

Abstract

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children. The aim of this study was to report the burden of isolated pediatric TBI at a major trauma center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and assess associations with mechanism of injury. Methods: A retrospective cohort study using chart review, including children aged ≤14 years with isolated TBI over 2 years from 01 Jan 2016 to 31 Dec 2017 was undertaken. Univariable or unadjusted associations of patients presenting after motor vehicle crashes (MVC) and physiological variables were assessed. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality at hospital discharge were the primary outcome measures. Results: There were 2,501 pediatric patients that presented to the Emergency Department with head injury and 241 (9.6%) patients were admitted to hospital with isolated TBI, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 9%. MVC was the most common mechanism of injury (n = 142; 59%) followed by falls (n = 68; 28.2%), pedestrians (n = 26; 10.8%), and non-accidental injuries (n = 5; 2.1%). Patients presenting after MVC were older (p = 0.001), had similar Glasgow Coma Scale scores (p = 0.12) and more often presented in a coagulopathic state (p <0.001). Patients following MVC had higher rates of ICU admission and spent longer in hospital. Conclusions: MVC was the most common mechanism of isolated pediatric TBI requiring hospital admission and associated with significantly higher rates of ICU utilization and longer hospital length of stay. These findings highlight the urgent need for validation from other centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and preventive strategies directed at pediatric occupants of motor vehicles in the KSA.

Keywords:   Wounds and injuries, pediatrics, injuries, brain, road traffic crash, epidemiology, Saudi Arabia


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Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh


Authors
Abdullah Akkam
Pediatric Emergency Department, Children Hospital, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Ohud Asiri
Pediatric Emergency Department, Children Hospital, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Amina Joarder
Pediatric Intensive Unit, Children Hospital, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Faisal Almazroua
Adult Emergency Department, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Biswadev Mitra
Emergency & Trauma Center, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
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Correspondence to:
. Biswadev Mitra, Emergency & Trauma Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.; biswadev.mitra@monash.edu

Publication history
Received 26 Jan 2020
Revised 10 Apr 2020
Accepted 03 May 2020
Published online 22 May 2020
Published in print 10 Jul 2020

How to cite this article

Pubmed Style

Akkam A, Asiri O, Joarder A, Almazroua F, Mitra B. Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh. SJEMed. 2020; 1(2): 83-88. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559


Web Style

Akkam A, Asiri O, Joarder A, Almazroua F, Mitra B. Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh. http://www.sjemed.com/?mno=83026 [Access: August 05, 2020]. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Akkam A, Asiri O, Joarder A, Almazroua F, Mitra B. Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh. SJEMed. 2020; 1(2): 83-88. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Akkam A, Asiri O, Joarder A, Almazroua F, Mitra B. Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh. SJEMed. (2020), [cited August 05, 2020]; 1(2): 83-88. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559


Harvard Style

Akkam, A., Asiri, . O., Joarder, . A., Almazroua, . F. & Mitra, . B. (2020) Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh. SJEMed, 1 (2), 83-88. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559


Turabian Style

Akkam, Abdullah, Ohud Asiri, Amina Joarder, Faisal Almazroua, and Biswadev Mitra. 2020. Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh. Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine, 1 (2), 83-88. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559


Chicago Style

Akkam, Abdullah, Ohud Asiri, Amina Joarder, Faisal Almazroua, and Biswadev Mitra. "Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh." Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine 1 (2020), 83-88. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Akkam, Abdullah, Ohud Asiri, Amina Joarder, Faisal Almazroua, and Biswadev Mitra. "Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh." Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine 1.2 (2020), 83-88. Print. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Akkam, A., Asiri, . O., Joarder, . A., Almazroua, . F. & Mitra, . B. (2020) Epidemiology of traumatic head injury among children presenting to a tertiary hospital in Riyadh. Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine, 1 (2), 83-88. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1580017559


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