Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine

Original Article
SJEMed. 2020; 1(2): 75-82

Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fadi Jandali Qara, Shadi A. Zakai, Anas F. Hamam.

View PDF HTML Fulltext DOI: 10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937

Abstract

Background: In recent years, multiple reports of an increase in the emergence of community-acquired methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (CA-MRSA) have arisen. A potential infection risk may be present if a patient were to be transported by an emergency medical services (EMS) unit that previously transported a patient harboring CA-MRSA. We, therefore, sought to investigate whether there is a certain prevalence of CA-MRSA contamination among ambulances operating in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional survey study involving ambulances (types I to IV) in service in Jeddah from September to November of 2018. Five areas were chosen to be swabbed in each ambulance enrolled in our study. Results: A total of 425 samples were collected from 85 ambulances operating in three different health care sectors. Our results showed the overall contamination to be 338 samples (79.5%), with the highest contamination rate found on the stretcher grips and the blood pressure cuff sites (both n = 70 samples; 16.47%). Overall, only three samples yielded S. aureus bacteria, with none being MRSA. Conclusion: Even though we have an overall bacterial contamination rate of 79.5% in the areas surveyed on EMS ambulances, it is not clear that this contamination has a pathological potential to cause disease. The failure to isolate a single MRSA sample from the 425 taken suggests there is no MRSA problem.

Keywords:   Ambulance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, emergency medical services. 


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Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


Authors
Fadi Jandali Qara
Emergency Medicine Resident, Emergency Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
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Shadi A Zakai
Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
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Anas F Hamam
Consultant of Emergency Medicine and RTP Director, Ministry of Health (MOH) King Abdullah Medical Complex, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
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Correspondence to:
. Fadi Jandali Qara, Emergency Medicine Resident, Emergency Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.; dr_anas_md@hotmail.com

Publication history
Received 12 Feb 2020
Revised 10 Apr 2020
Accepted 27 Apr 2020
Published online 03 May 2020
Published in print 10 Jul 2020

How to cite this article

Pubmed Style

Qara FJ, Zakai SA, Hamam AF. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. SJEMed. 2020; 1(2): 75-82. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937


Web Style

Qara FJ, Zakai SA, Hamam AF. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. http://www.sjemed.com/?mno=86568 [Access: August 05, 2020]. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Qara FJ, Zakai SA, Hamam AF. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. SJEMed. 2020; 1(2): 75-82. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937


Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Qara FJ, Zakai SA, Hamam AF. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. SJEMed. (2020), [cited August 05, 2020]; 1(2): 75-82. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937


Harvard Style

Qara, F. J., Zakai, . S. A. & Hamam, . A. F. (2020) Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. SJEMed, 1 (2), 75-82. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937


Turabian Style

Qara, Fadi Jandali, Shadi A. Zakai, and Anas F. Hamam. 2020. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine, 1 (2), 75-82. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937


Chicago Style

Qara, Fadi Jandali, Shadi A. Zakai, and Anas F. Hamam. "Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia." Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine 1 (2020), 75-82. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937


MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Qara, Fadi Jandali, Shadi A. Zakai, and Anas F. Hamam. "Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia." Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine 1.2 (2020), 75-82. Print. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937


APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Qara, F. J., Zakai, . S. A. & Hamam, . A. F. (2020) Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in ambulances in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Emergency Medicine, 1 (2), 75-82. doi:10.24911/SJEMed/72-1581431937


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